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Malay Language

Malay (Jawi: بهاس ملايو) is a Malayo-Polynesian language family Austronesian language below have been used in Indonesia, Malaysia, and the environment from more than 1,000 years. Although the origin of the Malay race (in the sense that specific) which is the most original yet unknown, but the growth of the Malay language can be said from the South in the vicinity of Jambi and Palembang. [1] The earliest record of ancient Malay language is a stone inscription dated AD 682 to found in the South.

Malay is the national language of Malaysia, Indonesia, and Brunei, as well as one of the official languages ​​in Singapore. In Indonesia, the Malay language is called Bahasa Indonesia, and Malaysia, the Malay language is called Bahasa Malaysia. Apart from the four countries, the Malay language spoken by the Malay people in southern Thailand, the Philippines, Cambodia, Vietnam, Sri Lanka and South Africa.

According to statistics in the world of language, Malay language speakers is estimated at more than 300 million (with speakers of Bahasa Indonesia) and is the fourth language in the sequence number of the most important speakers of the languages ​​in the world after Mandarin, English and Hindi / Urdu language. In addition, the reported total of 70,000 people could speak the Malay language in Sri Lanka, while in China, there are Malay-language radio. Malay language is taught at universities in the United Kingdom, United States, Australia, Netherlands, China, Germany, New Zealand and some other places.

Standard Malay is a Malay Riau, Indonesia, as agreed upon by Indonesia, Malaysia, and Brunei. Riau Malay is considered the birthplace of the Malay language. In Malaysia, the Malay language has changed names several times. In the early 1970s, the Malay language is called Bahasa Malaysia for political reasons. But lately, the name "Malay" is used again. Starting in 2007, the national language of Malaysia is called back to Bahasa Malaysia as a symbol of that language is a language for all and not race. In Indonesia, Malay, Bahasa Indonesia, also known as the cause of the unity of the Indonesian Youth Pledge in 1928. In Singapore and Brunei, Malay did not experience any change in name.

Malay language has many dialects and all dialects have distinct differences in pronunciation and vocabulary. For example, Java or the Malay language has many words that Java is not known by Malay speakers of other languages. In addition, the language used by the Peranakan or Straits Chinese community (a mixture of Chinese immigrants and natives) is a mixture of Malay and Hokkien dialect. The language was once widely used in states such as Penang and the Straits of Malacca. However, people now prefer to speak Peranakan Hokkien or English. Aglutinatif Malay language is the language, meaning the meaning of words can be changed by adding a certain remuneration. Generally, the stem (or root) of the verb.

The use of Malay in these countries vary depending on the history and culture. Malay language became the official language in Malaysia in 1968, but English is widely used, especially among the Chinese and India, just as in Brunei. Unlike in Indonesia, Bahasa Indonesia managed to become the main medium of instruction or a lingua franca for people of all races because of government efforts to encourage the use of Bahasa Indonesia in Indonesia other than Dutch are no longer used. In East Timor, now separated from Indonesia to East Timor nation, Bahasa Indonesia is accepted as "working languages". In Singapore, the Malay language retained its status as the national language even though Singapore has four official languages ​​(ie English, Chinese, Indian, and Malay.) In southern Thailand, the Malay language used by the people of the Malay sultanate of Patani (Pattani Malay) but did not get any recognition from the government.

In early 2004, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka and MABBIM suggest Malay is to be the official language of ASEAN as more than half the population of ASEAN is able to converse in Malay. However, the matter is still under discussion.

Jawi Script

Jawi (توليسن جاوي) is an art of writing that has existed for centuries in the archipelago. Its appearance is directly related to the arrival of Islam in the archipelago. Jawi is derived from the Arabic script and Arabic letters are included in the Malay writing system. Jawi is the official paper of the country Brunei and is used extensively in Malaysia, the Philippines and Indonesia.

Jawi script is the earliest ever found. This article has been expanded since the days of the Islamic government Pasai then transmitted to the Government of Melaka, Johor Government and Aceh in the 17th century. Proof of this writing in Malaysia is the age of inscribed stone dated 702H or 1303M while Rumi was the earliest discovered at the end of the 19th century. This shows that the Jawi script was up to the country earlier than Rumi. Jawi is the official paper of the Federated Malay States during the mastering Not Associated British. Now this paper is used in the Islamic religion and Malay customs, mostly in Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis, and Terengganu.

In the old days, Jawi play an important role in the community. It is used as an important intermediary in all matters of administration, customs and trade. for example, used in important agreements between the parties at the Royal Malay and Portuguese authorities, the Netherlands and the UK. In addition, the 1957 Proclamation of Independence of Malaysia, among others, also written in the Jawi alphabets.

Arabic Calligraphy

Introduction of Arabic Calligraphy

Khat is an Arabic word which means the line. Thus, a beautiful calligraphic lines that form means the writing. Khat also means that the writings (kitabah) are bound by the rules and regulations have been reviewed and determined by those involved with the advancement of art. Arab writings also have certain values ​​and rules that have a high aesthetic. Picasso, a world-renowned artists from France once said, "After I saw that there is art in the Arab Khat, I admit that the art world with art that is still underdeveloped. " Calligraphy is not just a discourse of informers, but contains an abstract value that concluded with the smoothness, softness, continuity, communication, movement, harmony and so forth.

Calligraphy in the Malay World

Calligraphy began to enter the Malay-century since 7M through preaching and start businesses based in Gujarati. Perlak, Indonesia became the central point of the spread of Islam and the development of earth art of writing Khat in Malay. Up to 15m range, Singapore has taken over the role of the central business district and the spread of Islam in the Malay Archipelago. Islamic Khat and writing continues to grow and it has proven formally by the discovery of tablets Terengganu (1303M).

Next, learn calligraphy in Malaya through education booths, Arab schools and other institutions. Sultan Idris Training College in Tanjung Malim for example, has produced many teachers who teach the Jawi script once. Among the Arab schools that gave birth to the authors of the country is Islamic Khat Al-Attas Johor, Sekolah Sultan Zainal Abidin of Terengganu, Kelantan Muhammadiyyah School, Maktab Mahmud Kedah, Madrasah Al-Ihya Al-Sharif and other Silver.

Khat writers, among them world-renowned home Syed Abdul Rahman bin Hasan Al-Attas, Fathi bin Haji Wan Salleh Wan Isa, and some of the more prominent young writers today. There are local writers who have entered the competition at the international level and even among those who regularly win ASEAN tournament. It is better, the field of writing is fueled Khat learning back in the homeland, whether formal or informal for the time it is not extinct chewed.

Digital Jawi

Digitalisation Jawi began in the 1990s anymore. Actually there are many issues to fight for the Jawi script, although the virtual world.

Unicode and IDN

This matter has been discussed in detail by MyNIC (Malaysia Domain Registrar). To find out more you can read the PDF at the link below.

.my IDN Table for Jawi Script

Report for Malaysia’s Internationalized Domain Name: Jawi Language Issues

Soon, you can have the domain URL address in the Jawi script is the first in the world. For example www. ايجاوي. my

Font

Traditionally, Arabs have a different script writing (calligraphy). The most common one is the Khat Thuluth, Naskh, Reqaah Khat, Khat Pharisees, Khat Khat Diwani and Kufi. For the Jawi script, the use of khat-khat was also used. But for the Jawi script itself, there is no specific line that is designed to represent the Jawi calligraphy.

For digital Jawi, you need a font to display the form of Jawi letters. Font font, you can get free or commercial. However, currently there are not many options for font, font that has all the Jawi letters.

Before this, there is a font-font-font font changed from Arabic to just change the letters are rarely used in the Jawi script Jawi alphabet. This method causes the Jawi letters will change if you use other standard font.

Among the standard font that supports almost all Arabic Jawi alphabet is now the typesetting. You can find these fonts if you install on your computer with Windows Vista.

To avoid dependence on outside parties to develop a font for the Jawi script, we actually can make your own. All you need is some software that you can get free and commercial. Here I mentioned some things you should have to make the font Jawi:

  • Font Builder Software (cth : Font Creator Program)
  • Microsoft VOLT
  • Jawi letters drawn completed (must have all forms)

Rendering Engine

To ensure that you typed in the Jawi script should be continued in accordance with, you need Rendering Engine or the so-called Uniscribe Unicode Script Processor (usp10.dll) for Windows users.

Keyboard Layout

Here is the position of the arrangement of Jawi letters. This arrangement has been decided and agreed upon during the meeting MyNIC / DBP / SME / SIRIM on 24/4/2009. However, it is still not final. Almost all Arabic letters preserved the original site, the Jawi alphabet users should press the SHIFT + letter to get the Jawi alphabet.

Complete information on the proposed keyboard layout you can read Jawi proposal Design and Implementation of Jawi keyboard layout: A Proposal

The new layout of the keyboard jawi Ejawi - Normal Display.

Shift Display

Ejawi encourage you to use a new keyboard layout because it uses the Unicode character that has been standardized.

Software / Web Jawi (Online and Offline)

Software

Website

Issues Arising

In the fight for digital Jawi, there are still some issues and have not been fully completed, including:

  • Unicode-compliant jawi font
  • Special Issue: the position of hamzah
  • ZWNJ - Zero width non joiner

The three issues above you can find out more by reading at http://sun1.ftsm.ukm.my/src/zamri/jawiware-2.html. Mr Mohd Zamri Murah is a lecturer in the Faculty of Information Science and Technology Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Pattern Recognition Group, Center for Artificial Intelligence Technology. He was directly involved in representing UKM in the Technical Meeting (TC) under the auspices of SIRIM to create a standard code and jawi keyboard layout.

 

Ejawi.net

Ejawi.net has been operating on-line since March 19, 2006. A series of improvements have been made ​​to Ejawi particular conversion engine automatically. Here are some changes to the features that made ​​by Ejawi version.

Ejawi versi 3.0 (1 Mei 2009)

  • Perubahan keseluruhan laman dari sudut antaramuka, grafik dan kandungan
  • Penambahan Ruangan Anjung, Kenali Ejawi, Ejawi Pro, Ejawi ForKids, Projek Kamus Terbuka dan Sudut Kreatif
  • Ruangan Komen disusun kembali mengikut kategori untuk memudahkan pengguna membuat rujukan
  • Penjenamaan Semula Ejawi Converter kepada Ejawi Pro/Profesional
  • Meningkatkan keupayaan enjin penukaran automatik dengan menambah sebanyak lebih 50,000 daftar kata DBP
  • Kini penukaran boleh dibuat secara dua hala -- (Rumi - Jawi) dan (Jawi - Rumi)
  • Pengguna boleh membuat pilihan kaedah penukaran sama ada menggunakan kaedah suku kata sahaja, daftar kata sahaja atau menggabungkan kedua-dua kaedah terbabit.
  • Meminda beberapa kod huruf jawi kepada kod unicode yang piawai (berdasarkan mesyuarat penyelarasan peringkat TC (Technical Committe) yang dipengerusikan oleh SIRIM dengan ahli dari DBP, UKM dan MyNIC pada 24/4/2009)
  • Menggunakan virtual keyboard yang baru
  • Mewujudkan ruangan Ejawi ForKids bagi sokongan pembelajaran interaktif
  • Mewujudkan projek baru iaitu Kamus Terbuka versi 1

Ejawi versi 2.2 (21 Mac 2007)

  • Menambah beberapa kekunci pada keyboard jawi seperti tanda-tanda baris
  • Mengemaskini enjin penukaran rumi jawi dengan penambahan suku kata
  • Menambah fungsi pilihan untuk pengguna menukar bentuk nombor
  • Menambah kolum bagi Ejawi™OnCD dan SMS InJawi

Ejawi versi 2.1 (1 Disember 2006)

  • Mengemaskini font-font
  • Mengemaskini enjin penukaran rumi jawi dengan penambahan suku kata

Ejawi versi 1 (19 Mac 2006)

  • Versi awal Ejawi dilancarkan
  • Pengguna boleh menukar sebarang perkataan yang dimasukkan ke dalam bentuk tulisan jawi
  • Pengguna boleh membaca teks jawi walaupun tidak mempunyai font jawi melalui keadah embeded font. Walau bagaimanapun terhad untuk pengguna yang melayari dengan Internet Explorer 6 ke atas
  • Dua jenis font disediakan iaitu Arial Jawi dan Arial Nasakh

Research and Development

Jawi Spell Correction

God willing, this study will be conducted in the near term is associated with correction speller Jawi. This study will analyze some of the techniques used by some existing models such as Edit Distance calculation and N-Gram. These techniques will provide recommendations on the words that are considered wrong and provide the most convenient alternative words.

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Nik Muhammad bin Nik Abdul Kadir
ITQAN Network Management & Services

Ejawi applications available for free to all users who visit this site. Any use is subject to the terms and conditions set by the Ejawi. Ejawi not be liable for any claims due to the use of this site. Contact us at cmd_safhah [at] yahoo [dot] com